Articles, blogs, policy papers and books

Research Article • Sonali Srivastava, Terhi-Anna Wilska & Johanna Sjöberg

Girls’ portrayals in fast fashion advertisements

Consumption Markets & Culture

This study analyses the visual construction of girls and notions surrounding young femininities articulated by 15 contemporary advertisements of Nordic fast fashion companies, available on their public Facebook pages in Finland. A visual discourse analysis identifies some blatantly stereotypical and a few complex visual constructions of girls as heterosexual, caring, innocent, sexy posers, active self-presenters and self-surveyors, carefree and environmental activists.

Research Article • Lammassaari, H., Hietajärvi, L., Salmela-Aro, K., Hakkarainen, K., & Lonka, K.

Exploring the relations among teachers’ epistemic theories, work engagement, burnout and the contemporary challenges of the teacher profession

Frontiers in Psychology 13:861437

Current educational reforms concerning curricula and digitalization challenge educators to meet new demands for learning and schooling. What is common for current educational reforms is that they tend to emphasize competencies that are not related to the traditional subject-matters and reflect a stance which presents learning as a naturally reflective and collaborative act.

Research Article • Maksniemi, E., Hietajärvi, L., Ketonen, E. E., Lonka, K., Puukko, K. T., & Salmela-Aro, K.

Intraindividual associations between active social media use, exhaustion, and bedtime vary according to age—A longitudinal study across adolescence

Journal of Adolescence 94(3): 401-414.

The majority of adolescents engage with others online, and using social media is one of their top activities. However, there is little longitudinal evidence addressing whether active social media use is associated with study-related emotional exhaustion or delayed bedtime at the individual level of development during adolescence.

Research Article • Engberg, E., Hietajärvi, L., Maksniemi, E., Lahti, J. M., Lonka, K., Salmela-Aro, K., & Viljakainen, H.

The longitudinal associations between mental health indicators and digital media use and physical activity during adolescence: A latent class approach. Mental health and physical activity.

• We conducted a 4-year follow-up study in adolescents.
• We assessed mental health indicators at 11 years of age.
• We assessed physical activity and different types of digital media use at 15 years of age.
• We identified four behavior profiles of digital media use and physical activity.
• Physical activity and related self-esteem were the strongest predictors for later behavior profiles.

Research Article • Abdulhamed, R., Lonka, K., Hietajärvi, L., Ikonen, R., & Klemetti, R.

Anxiety and depression symptoms and their association with discrimination and a lack of social support among first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents

International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 87, 193. [0147-1767].

The focus in the present study is on how experienced discrimination, being able to discuss personal matters with parents, and having someone to discuss personal worries with relate to symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety among first- and second-generation immigrant-background adolescents (aged 14–15) living in Finland.

It was alarming that 42 per cent of the first-generation immigrant group reported that they could not discuss their personal worries with anyone, and more than one-fifth of these youth hardly ever talked about personal matters with their parents.


Research Article • Jesse Tuominen, Eero Rantala, Hanna Reinikainen, Vilma Luoma-aho & Terhi-Anna Wilska

The brighter side of materialism: Managing impressions on social media for higher social capital

University of Jyväskylä

This study examines how young people’s materialistic values connect with status-seeking impression management on social media, and subsequently to social capital, within the same model. Eight hundred Finnish participants aged 15–19 participated in our structured phone survey.


Research Article • Niina Sormanen, Hanna Reinikainen & Terhi-Anna Wilska

Strategies of Eliciting Young People’s Affective and Quick Participation in a Youth Magazine’s Instagram Community

Traditional media have merged with social media and pursue to produce engaging content and form relationships with online audiences.

The study produces valuable, detailed information regarding young people’s online participation preferences and the potential of traditional media in engaging with online youth audiences.


Research Article • Silinskas, G., Ahonen, A. & Wilska, T-A

Financial literacy among Finnish adolescents in PISA 2018: the role of financial learning and dispositional factors

The aim or the present study was to examine the relative importance of financial education in school and families and dispositional factors (competitiveness, work mastery, meta-cognition) in predicting financial literacy among Finnish adolescents. The data on the 4328 Finnish 15-year-olds was drawn from the PISA 2018 assessment.

Large-scale Assessments in Education  9, Article 24  (open access)

Research Article • Heidi Lammassaari, Lauri Hietajärvi, Kirsti Lonka, Sufen Chen & Chin-Chung Tsai

Teachers’ epistemic beliefs and reported practices in two cultural contexts

Teachers’ epistemic beliefs may have consequences for their pedagogical work. We used previously developed scales to assess epistemic beliefs that teachers hold about learning, knowledge and knowing, and how they report putting such ideas into practice. The scales consisted of self-reported Likert-type statements considering collaborative knowledge building, valuing metacognition, certainty of knowledge, and a surface approach to learning.

Report • Wilska, T., Sirola, A., Nuckols, J., Nyrhinen, J.

A year of COVID-19 in three countries – A study on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on everyday life, consumption and digital behaviour in Finland, Sweden, and Great Britain

A year of COVID-19 in three countries – A study on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on everyday life, consumption and digital behaviour in Finland, Sweden, and Great Britain
(2021). A year of COVID-19 in three countries – A study on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on everyday life, consumption and digital behaviour in Finland, Sweden, and Great Britain. YFI julkaisuja.9. Jyväskylän yliopisto.

Research Article • Berg, Minna; Talvio, Markus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Benitez, Isabel; Cavioni, Valeria; Conte, Elisabetta; Cuadrado, Francisco; Ferreira, Marco; Kosir, Matej; Martinsone, Baiba; Ornaghi, Veronica; Raudiene, Irena; Sukyte, Daiva; Talic, Sanela; Lonka, Kirsti

The Development of Teachers’ and Their Students’ Social and Emotional Learning During the “Learning to Be Project”-Training Course in Five European Countries

The results indicated that there was a favorable development in the intervention group in some of the measured skills among students, but the effects were different for the two age groups. This study adds to both theoretical and practical development of continuing teacher training about SEL and its possible role in reducing problem behavior among the students.

Research Article • Panu Kalmi, Gianluca Trotta, Andrius Kažukauskas

Energy-related financial literacy and electricity consumption: Survey-based evidence from Finland

Gender has a strong association with energy-related financial literacy. Our results also indicate that households of respondents with higher levels of energy-related financial literacy tend to consume less electricity when we control for other factors such as dwelling and household characteristics. This implies that measures to promote energy-related financial literacy might guide consumers’ decisions toward energy efficiency and conservation.

Review • Nannan Xi & Juho Hamari

Shopping in virtual reality: A literature review and future agenda

Virtual reality (VR) refers to technologies for substituting the perceived reality. With the recent proliferation of consumer-grade head-mounted VR displays, several industries have started to wake up to the possible potential of virtual reality. One typical area in the early stages of the adoption of these technologies is marketing, and especially its sub-areas of retail and shopping.

Research Article • Thomas K. F. Chiu, Tzung-Jin Lin & Kirsti Lonka

Motivating Online Learning: The Challenges of COVID-19 and Beyond

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted students’ opportunities to learn worldwide. Students and teachers have been forced to shift from traditional classrooms to emergency online / remote learning. They face key challenges in adapting practices away from a focus on face-to-face learning to an online learning environment mediated by various forms of technology. The pandemic reveals the urgent need to augment the educational system’s technological infrastructure, expand the teachers’ pedagogical expertise and the students’ learning repertoire.

Chapter • Ranta, M., Grönlund, H., & Pessi , A. B.

What is above everything? Conceptions of the sacred among Finnish youth.

Teoksessa E. Kuusisto, M. Ubani, P. Nokelainen, & A. Toom (toim.), Good Teachers for Tomorrow’s Schools: Purpose, Values, and Talents in Education (111-128). (Moral Development and Citizenship Education; Vuosikerta 16). Brill.

Individuals’ conceptions and understandings of the sacred illustrate the deepest levels of their identity and spiritualty. Our chapter presents the findings of our research based on representative data from Finnish youth.

Research Article • G. Silinskas & M. Ranta3 & T.-A. Wilska

Financial Behaviour Under Economic Strain in Different Age Groups: Predictors and Change Across 20 Years

The present study examined the multiple micro- and macro-level factors that affect individuals’ financial behaviour under economic strain. The following sociodemographic and economic factors that predict financial behaviour were analysed: age group, year of data gathering, and attitudes towards consumption (economical, deprived, and hedonistic). Journal of Consumer Policy.

Research Article • Kruskopf, M., Hakkarainen, K., Li, S., & Lonka, K.

Lessons learned on student engagement from the nature of pervasive socio-digital interests and related network participation of adolescents

The rise of modern socio‐digital technologies has fundamentally changed the everyday environments in which young people communicate with each other and cultivate interests. To gain a more sophisticated understanding of this phenomenon, this study provides in‐depth, qualitative insights into adolescents’ experiences of their socio‐digital developmental ecologies.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.


Research Article • Mette Ranta, Gintautas Silinskas and Terhi-Anna Wilska

Young adults’ personal concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Finland: an issue for social concern

COVID-19 pandemic by investigating their personal concerns about mental well-being, career/studies and economic situation. The authors investigated how young adults’ (aged 18–29) personal concerns differ from older people’s concerns (aged 30–65) and which person- and context-related antecedents relate to personal concerns.

Research Article • Lonka, K., Ketonen, E., & Vermunt, J. D.

University students’ epistemic profiles, conceptions of learning, and academic performance. Higher Education.

University students’ epistemic beliefs may have practical consequences for studying and success in higher education. Such beliefs constitute epistemic theories that may empirically manifest themselves as epistemic profiles. This study examined university students’ epistemic profiles and their relations to conceptions of learning, age, gender, discipline, and academic achievement.

Dissertation • Jussi Nyrhinen

Social Capital in the Digitised Servicescape

Digitalisation has placed retail stores under re-examination due to the changing servicescape (i.e. the shopping environment) and social interactions with store personnel and other customers that are experienced across both online and offline stores. This interdisciplinary dissertation seeks to fill a research gap in the marketing literature concerning the servicescape and the sociological theory of social capital, including how interpersonal relationships and social networks constitute the service experience and how the digital–physical servicescape facilitates trust, human contact and communities.

Research Article • Tuominen, H., Niemivirta, M., Lonka, K., & Salmela-Aro, K.

Motivation across a transition: Changes in achievement goal orientations and academic well-being from elementary to secondary school

The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of achievement goal orientation profiles among Finnish sixth- and seventh-graders, the stability and change in these profiles across the transition from elementary to lower secondary school, and the profile differences in academic achievement (grades) and academic well-being (school engagement and school burnout).

Research Article • Talonen A, Pasanen J, Ruuskanen O-P

Exploring the Co-operative Form’s Potential in Crowdfunding: A Non-monetary Perspective

Technology-driven change has generated new, even revolutionary business models, characterized by high levels of user participation. In the finance field, business models based on crowdfunding have seen significant growth and entered use as an alternative means of extending access and gaining financing for various types of projects.

Research Article • Hietajärvi, L., Lonka, K., Hakkarainen, K., Alho, K., & Salmela-Aro, K.

Are Schools Alienating Digitally Engaged Students? Longitudinal Relations between Digital Engagement and School Engagement

This article examined digital learning engagement as the out-of-school learning component that reflects informally emerging socio-digital participation. The gap hypothesis proposes that students who prefer learning with digital technologies outside of school are less engaged in traditional school. Frontline Learning Research, 8(1), 33 – 55.

Research Article • Cornée, Simon; Kalmi, Panu; Szafarz, Ariane

The business model of social banks

The main reason for the existence of social banks is to fund other social enterprises. On that basis, Simon Cornée from the University of Rennes 1, Panu Kalmi from the University of Vaasa and Ariane Szafarz from the Université Libre de Bruxelles propose that social banks can operate profitably and still lend to their borrowers at attractive interest rates when their owners and depositors accept lower returns on their investments.

Research Article • Ranta, Mette, Punamäki Raija-Leena, Chow Angela & Salmela-Aro, Katariina

The Economic Stress Model in Emerging Adulthood: The role of social relationships and financial capability. Emerging Adulthood

Families mobilize psychosocial resources to attune negative consequences of economic hardship, but research is lacking among youth. We propose an Economic Stress Model in Emerging Adulthood (ESM-EA) conceptualizing age-salient social relationships and financial capability as mediators between economic hardship and well-being.

The ESM-EA was tested in a three-wave prospective study following the 2008 economic recession, as part of the Finnish Educational Transitions studies. The sample consisted of 551 emerging adults (55.5% female) who participated at ages 23, 25, and 28. Economic pressures and financial capability mediated the effect of economic hardship on well-being, whereas social relationships did not. Individuals with an unfavorable financial situation at age 25 were more likely to show lower life satisfaction and higher depressive symptoms at 28 when they reported a higher level of economic pressures and a lower level of financial capability.